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爱因斯坦眼中的世界

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爱因斯坦眼中的世界
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如果在 Google 搜寻「国际观」,至少 31 万笔新闻跳出来:「台湾学生没国际观?」、「不熟希特勒缺少国际观?」、「培养国际观,就能…」什幺是国际观?一种看世界的方式?长久以来,「如何看世界」一直是人们关心的话题。爱因斯坦在 1921 年获得诺贝尔物理学奖时,为众人演讲《我眼中的世界》,谈到他如何从生命、社会、政治、甚至宇宙,理解眼前的世界。

Jason Mraz 给爱因斯坦的告白歌 The World As I See It

美国歌手 Jason Mraz 受到爱因斯坦启发,2011 年发布同名单曲,获得 AllMusic 和专业乐评 PopMatters 等的高度称讚。

爱因斯坦眼中的世界
演讲撷取1. 爱因斯坦生命观:

What an extraordinary situation is that of us mortals!

Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; 
for what purpose he knows not, though he sometimes thinks he feels it.

But from the point of view of daily life, without going deeper, we exist for our fellow-men--in the first place for those on whose smiles and welfare all our happiness depends, and next for all those unknown to us personally with whose destinies we are bound up by the tie of sympathy.

A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life depend on the labours of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving.

I am strongly drawn to the simple life and am often oppressed by the feeling that I am engrossing an unnecessary amount of the labour of my fellow-men.

I regard class differences as contrary to justice and, in the last resort, based on force. I also consider that plain living is good for everybody, physically and mentally.

我们这些终会一死的凡人命运真的很奇特!每个人在世界上都只能短暂逗留;不知目的何在,儘管有时自以为对此若有所感。

但是,只要从日常生活就可以明白:人是为他人而生存的 ---
首先,我们会为了一种人,他们的喜悦和健康牵动着我们的幸福;其次是许多我们不认识的人,他们的命运通过同情的纽带跟我们密切结合在一起。

我每天上百次地提醒自己:我的精神生活和物质生活都依靠别人的劳动,我必须尽力以同样的份量来回馈我所接受的一切,以及至今仍持续得到的东西。

我强烈地嚮往着简朴的生活,我认为阶级的区分是不合理的,它最后是凭藉暴力所决定的。我也相信,简单淳朴的生活,无论在身体上还是在精神上,对每个人都有益。

2. 爱因斯坦社会观:

My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced freedom from the need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. 

I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, of the need for solitude--a feeling which increases with the years. 

One is sharply conscious, yet without regret, of the limits to the possibility of mutual understanding and sympathy with one's fellow-creatures. 

Such a person no doubt loses something in the way of geniality and light-heartedness; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows and avoids the temptation to take his stand on such insecure foundations.

我有强烈的社会正义感和社会责任感,但我又明显地缺乏与他人、社会直接接触,这两者总是形成古怪的对照。

我实在是一个「孤独的旅客」,我未曾全心全意地属于我的国家、我的家庭、我的朋友,甚至我最为接近的亲人;在所有情感关係前,我总是感觉到疏离、保持孤独的必要性 --- 而这种感受正与年俱增。

人们清楚地知道,但不惋惜,人与人相互了解和同情心的可能性是有限度的。

这样的人无疑地在某种程度上会失去他的天真无邪和无忧无虑的心境;
但另一方面,他也能在很大程度上不被别人的意见、习惯和判断左右,并且能够避免那种把他的内心平衡建立在这样一些不可靠的基础之上的诱惑。

3. 爱因斯坦政治观:

My political ideal is that of democracy. Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized. 

It is an irony of fate that I myself have been the recipient of excessive admiration and respect from my fellows through no fault, and no merit, of my own. 

The cause of this may well be the desire, unattainable for many, to understand the one or two ideas to which I have with my feeble powers attained through ceaseless struggle.

I am quite aware that it is necessary for the success of any complex undertaking that one man should do the thinking and directing and in general bear the responsibility. 

But the led must not be compelled, they must be able to choose their leader. 

An autocratic system of coercion, in my opinion, soon degenerates. 

For force always attracts men of low morality, and I believe it to be an invariable rule that tyrants of genius are succeeded by scoundrels. 

我的政治理想是民主政体。
让每一个人都作为个人而受到尊重,而不让任何人成为被崇拜的偶像。

我自己一直受到同代人的过分的讚扬和尊敬,这不是由于我自己的过错,也不是由于我自己的功劳,实在是一种命运的嘲弄。其原因大概在于人们有一种愿望,想理解我如何以自已微薄的绵力,通过不断的斗争以获得的少数几个观念,而这种愿望有很多人未能实现。

我完全明白,一个组织要实现它的目的,就必须有一个人去思考,去指挥、并且全面担负起责任来。但是被领导的人不应当受到强迫,他们必须能够选择自己的领袖。

在我看来,强迫的专制制度很快就会腐化堕落。因为暴力所招引来的总是一些品德低劣的人,而且我相信,天才的暴君总是由无赖来继承的,这是一条千古不易的规律。

4. 爱因斯坦宇宙观:

The fairest thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. 

He who knows it not and can no longer wonder, no longer feel amazement, is as good as dead, a snuffed-out candle. It was the experience of mystery--even if mixed with fear--that engendered religion.

A knowledge of the existence 
of something we cannot penetrate, 
of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and 
the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms
--it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; 
in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man. 

奥秘,是我们所能经历的最美的事物。这个最基本的感情,是一切艺术与科学的起源

如果不知道它、不再有好奇心、也不再有惊讶的感觉,就无异于行尸走肉,一盏被掐灭的蜡烛。就是这样奥秘的经验 --- 虽然掺杂着恐惧 --- 产生了宗教。

我们认识到有某种为我们所不能洞察的东西存在,感觉到那种只能以其最原始的形式接近我们的心灵中最深奥的理性和最灿烂的美 --- 正是这种认识和这种情感构成了真正的宗教感情;在这个意义上,而且也只是在这个意义上,我才是一个具有深挚的宗教感情的人。

科学家也是一般人,爱因斯坦的人生跑马灯

1. 毕业即失业,写信跟老爸道歉:没能取得心中理想的工作,想去卖保险 
1902 年,爱因斯坦靠朋友帮忙,好不容易在瑞士专利局找到一份工作,但他其实很失望,因为他原本想当大学教授。纽约大学历史学家 Matt Stanley 说,「他对教授不敬,还常跷课,所以当他请教授写推荐函时,没人要帮他写。」

2. 躲回房间卯起来写下的情书足足能出书
1905~1925 年这段青年时期,18 岁的他的癡狂除了表现在科学上,也表现在对同班女同学米列娃的热情里;爱因斯坦写了厚度足以出书的情书给米列娃,后来也真的被集结成册出了书。

3. 喜欢旅游的一代科学家
1922 年旅行日本后,给儿子的信中写到:「我已经决定不要再这样到处趴趴走了。咦,我真的能做到吗?」

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